Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern)

Lower Bavaria (German: Niederbayern) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of the state.

Lower Bavaria is subdivided into three regions (Planungsverband)—Landshut, Passau and Donau-Wald. Recent election results mark it as the most conservative part of Germany, generally giving huge margins to the CSU. This part of Bavaria includes the Bavarian Forest, a well-known tourist destination in Germany, and the Lower Bavarian Upland.

Kreisfreie Städte


Waldkirchen is the biggest town in the district of Freyung-Grafenau in Germany.

Waldkirchen burned down 6 times (1492- 1945).

The last time was on 26 April 1945, when Waldkirchen was destroyed by advancing American troops because of a misunderstanding. A dozen people lost their lives in the barrage. (mainly women and old people)

The totally devastated city was rebuilt during the 1950s and became a "Stadt" (City) in 1972.

Deggendorf is a town in Bavaria, capital of the district Deggendorf. The earliest traces of settlement in the area are found near the Danube, about 8,000 years ago. Both Bronze Age and Celtic era archeological finds indicate continuous habitation through the years. Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor established in 1002 his supremacy over the area.

Deggendorf was the site of a displaced persons camp for Jewish refugees after World War II. It housed approximately 2,000 refugees, who created a cultural center that included two newspapers, the Deggendorf Center Review and Cum Ojfboj, theater group, synagogue, mikvah, kosher kitchen, and more. The camp even issued its own currency known as the Deggendorf Dollar. Many of the camp's residents were survivors of the concentration camp at Theresienstadt. The camp closed in 1949.

Abensberg is a town in the Lower Bavarian district of Kelheim, in Bavaria, Germany, lying around 30 km southwest of Regensburg, 40 km east of Ingolstadt, 50 northwest of Landshut and 100 km north of Munich. It is situated on the Abens river, a tributary of the Danube.

There had been settlement on this part of the Abens river since long before the High Middle Ages, dating back to Neolithic times. Of particular interest and national importance are the Neolithic flint mines at Arnhofen, where, around 7,000 years ago, Stone Age people made flint, which was fashioned into drills, blades and arrowheads, and was regarded as the steel of the Stone Age. Traces of over 20,000 individuals were found on this site.

The area around Abensberg, the so-called sand belt between Siegburg, Neustadt an der Donau, Abensberg and Langquaid, is used for the intensive farming of asparagus, due to the optimal soil condition and climate. 212 hectares of land can produce ninety-four asparagus plants. Abensberg asparagus enjoys a reputation among connoisseurs as a particular delicacy. In addition to asparagus, the production of hops plays a major role locally, the region having its own label, and there are still three independent breweries in the area. The town of Abensberg marks the start of the Deutsche Hopfenstraße (German Hops Road), a nickname given to the Bundesstraße 301, a German federal highway which runs through the heartland of Germany's hops-growing industry, ending in Freising.

Landshut is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany, belonging to both Eastern and Southern Bavaria. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut acts is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria. It is also the seat of the surrounding district. With a population of over 60,000 inhabitants, Landshut is the largest city in Lower Bavaria, followed by Passau and Straubing, as well as Eastern Bavaria's second biggest city after Regensburg.

Owing to its characteristic coat of arms, the city is also often called "Three Helmets City" (German: Dreihelmenstadt).

Due to its proximity and easy access to Munich and the Franz Josef Strauss International Airport, situated halfway between Munich and Landshut on the banks of the Isar, the city has East Bavaria's lowest unemployment rate (ca. 4.2% in October 2006), lower than the Bavarian average of ca. 5.8%.

Landshut lies in the centre of Lower Bavaria, and is part of the Alpine foothills. The River Isar runs through the city centre. Landshut is about 72 kilometres (45 mi) northeast of Munich

The city is of national importance because of its predominantly Gothic architecture within the historic city center, especially Trausnitz Castle and the Church of Saint Martin featuring the world's tallest brick tower. Among other Gothic architecture are the churches St. Jodok and Holy Spirit, but also the Town Hall and the Ländtor, the only still existing gate of the medieval fortification.

Landshut is also known for a festival celebrated every four years called the Landshuter Hochzeit, commemorating the 1475 marriage of George of Bavaria and Jadwiga Jagiellon.

The Landshut Wedding (German: Landshuter Hochzeit) is one of the largest historical pageants in Europe. Countless visitors from all over the world have taken part, or have been spectators of the "Landshuter Hochzeit 1475", a pageant held in Landshut, Bavaria (Germany). More than 2,000 participants in mediaeval costumes bring the festival to life to recreate the Late Middle Ages. It commemorates the wedding between Hedwig, the Polish King's daughter, and George, the son of the Duke of Landshut.

The original mediaeval wedding is re-enacted every four years, and everyone gets carried away with mediaeval jousting, pageantry, feasting and wedding processions for a short period in the summer.

is an independent city in Lower Bavaria, southern Germany. It is seat of the district Straubing-Bogen. Annually in August the Gäubodenvolksfest, the second largest fair in Bavaria, is held. The city is located on the Danube forming the center of the Gäuboden.

The area of Straubing has been continuously settled since the Neolithic. The conquest by the Romans in 16-14 BC had a dramatic impact on the whole region. Even today many traces of the 400-year Roman occupation can be found; for example, the famous 'Römerschatz' (roman treasure) which is shown in the Gäubodenmuseum. Sorviodurum, as the Romans called it, was an important military support base.

Nowadays, this new town is the center of Straubing with many shops, offices, restaurants and a pedestrian area. Most buildings there still have medieval style. The nightlife of Straubing, with many pubs and discothèques, is concentrated in this area.

A must is the beautiful gothic cathedral-like Basilika St. Jakob, the romanesque St. Peter's Church, the Carmelite Monastery with its baroque Church and library, St. Vitus (see picture), where you can find a life-size personifciation of "state and church" joined in holy matrimony.

In 1944 und 1945 Straubing suffered from several American Air raids. The local military hospital was destroyed to an extent of 80 percent with a loss of 45 inmates, although it was clearly marked with the Red Cross insignia on the roof tops.

Straubing also has many industrial areas and a port at the river Danube with access to the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, a connection from the North Sea to the Black Sea. It is the center of the Bavarian high tech offensive in biotechnology.

The Gäubodenvolksfest in Straubing is the second largest genuine folk festival in Bavaria, Germany, after the Munich Oktoberfest.

The Gäubodenvolksfest is a modern and family friendly festival with about 120 carousels, roller coasters and six big beer tents with 24.000 seats at an area of about 90.000 m²., but it has upheld its traditional character. Many of the about 1.2 million visitors wear Bavarian costume ("Trachten").

The festival combines Bavarian tradition with progress and vitality. It is one of Bavaria's oldest and most popular festivals and it has increased to one of the biggest events in Germany. Beer plays a central role in the fair. The beer is specially brewed. Only breweries from Straubing or the district Straubing-Bogen are allowed to serve beer there.

On the first day of the festival there is a "Bierprobe", that means "trying of the beer" and a parade with 2,000 participants in native cloths on foot, on horses or horse carriages.

On the second day there is the official opening with a representative of the Bavarian or German government.

The festival is held every year in the middle of August and lasts 11 days. The festival is celebrated by the whole city as a "fifth season", and many companies are closed down during this time.

Combined with the Gäubodenvolksfest is the Ostbayernschau, the biggest fair trade of eastern Bavaria.

Passau in the southeast of Germany is located at the Austrian border. Situated at the confluence of the rivers Danube, Inn and Ilz, Passau is worldwide known as "The Three Rivers City".

The earliest evidence of human settlement dates back to the Neolithic. Passau was part of the Roman Empire for more than 400 years. It became an Episcopal seat in the year 739 AD. Passau was an independent prince bishopric for over 600 years. Finally in 1803 Passau was annexed into Bavaria. The setting of the Old Town, created by Italian baroque masters in the 17th century, shows soaring towers, picturesque places, enchanting promenades and romantic lanes.

In the heart of Passau on the Old Town’s highest point rises St. Steven’s Cathedral, in which the world’s largest cathedral organ sounds. Sitting high above the rivers, the majestic fortress "Veste Oberhaus" on the Danube’s side and the Pilgrimage Church "Mariahilf" on the Inn’s side frame the city outstandingly beauty.

Passau with its unique charm and its atmosphere is one of the most beautiful and spectacular German cities on the Danube.